Vulnerability scanners (eg. OpenVAS)
Specialty enumeration tools (eg. SQLMap)
Banner grabbing (use of telnet or netcat)
DNS zone transfers
Nmap: Nmap is a security scanner tool which can be used to map out devices on a network. Nmap can provide detailed technical information about the network itself as well as computers on the network. Nmap can see scan for how many people are on the network, version numbers of applications, what operating systems are on the network, and a lot more.
Vulnerability Scanners: Networks, operating systems, and applications can all have weaknesses, and vulnerability scanners are tools which can scan and detect these vulnerabilities. It’s important to scan your own stuff so that you can identify weaknesses in your systems before your enemies do. Once you can see your systems’ weaknesses, you can fix it.
Specialty Enumeration Tools: Enumeration is the gathering of information in order to understand how to cyberattack a target. There are many potential weak spots that an attacker can exploit, including: usernames, hostnames, network shares and services, IP addresses, settings and configurations, running software, email services, and domain name services. Enumeration tools help to automate the information gathering process.
Banner Grabbing: Banner grabbing is a way to gain information about remote servers. For system administrators, it’s a banner grabbing is a handy way to catalogue their systems and services. For intruders, however, banning grabbing is yet another way to gain information about their target’s systems.
DNS Zone Transfers: DNS, or domain name service, is the system that allows websites to have real names instead of having a series of numbers. DNS servers are also known as host zones. Each zone contains name information for a number of websites. Zone Transfers, or AXFR, are a way for DNS admins to replicate DNS data from databases on multiple DNS servers at one time. If an attacker were to gain access to these zones, they could gain significant insight into the network of that zone.